Asset Class Opportunities
Invesco does not provide tax advice. The tax information contained herein is general and is not exhaustive by nature. It is not intended or written to be used, and it cannot be used by any taxpayer, for the purpose of avoiding tax penalties that may be imposed on the taxpayer under US federal tax laws. Federal and state tax laws are complex and constantly changing. Investors should always consult their own legal or tax advisor for information concerning their individual situation.
Investors should consider their current and anticipated investment horizon and income tax bracket when making an investment decision.
Neither MSCI nor any other party involved in or related to compiling, computing or creating the MSCI data makes any express or implied warranties or representations with respect to such data (or the results to be obtained by the use thereof), and all such parties hereby expressly disclaim all warranties of originality, accuracy, completeness, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to any of such data. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall MSCI, any of its affiliates or any third party involved in or related to compiling, computing or creating the data have any liability for any direct, indirect, special, punitive, consequential or any other damages (including lost profits) even if notified of the possibility of such damages. No further distribution or dissemination of the MSCI data is permitted without MSCI’s express written consent.
Prices of equity securities change in response to many factors, including the historical and prospective earnings of the issuer, the value of its assets, general economic conditions, interest rates, investor perceptions and market liquidity.
Common stocks do not assure dividend payments. Dividends are paid only when declared by an issuer’s board of directors and the amount of any dividend may vary over time.
Fixed income products are subject to risk, including credit risk of the issuer and the effects of changing interest rates. Market prices of fixed income securities with intermediate lives generally fluctuate more in response to changes in interest rates than do market prices of municipal securities with shorter lives, but generally fluctuate less than market prices of municipal securities with longer lives.
High yield (junk) bonds involve a greater risk of default or price changes due to changes in the credit quality of the issuer.
The risks of investing in securities of issuers located in a single country or a limited number of countries may be affected by the economic, political and social conditions in those countries. Such variables may result in increased volatility and may have a significant impact on investment performance.
Most senior loans are made to corporations with below investment-grade credit ratings and are subject to significant credit, valuation and liquidity risk. The value of the collateral securing a loan may not be sufficient to cover the amount owed, may be found invalid or may be used to pay other outstanding obligations of the borrower under applicable law. There is also the risk that the collateral may be difficult to liquidate, or that a majority of the collateral may be illiquid.
Municipal securities are subject to the risk that litigation, legislation, or other political events, local business or economic conditions or the bankruptcy of the issuer could have a significant effect on an issuer’s ability to make payments of principal and/or interest.
Commodities may subject an investor to greater volatility than traditional securities such as stocks and bonds.
Foreign investments may be affected by changes in a foreign country’s exchange rates, political and social instability, changes in economic or taxation policies, difficulties when enforcing obligations, decreased liquidity, and increased volatility. Foreign companies may be subject to less regulation resulting in less publicly available information about the companies.
The risks of investing in securities of foreign issuers located in developing or emerging countries may be more negatively affected by fluctuations in foreign currencies, political and economic instability, and foreign taxation issues than in more developed countries.
Investments in real estate related instruments may be affected by economic, legal, or environmental factors that affect property values, rents or occupancies of real estate. Real estate companies, including REITs or similar structures, tend to be small and mid-cap companies and their shares may be more volatile and less liquid. The value of investments in real estate related companies may be affected by the quality of management, the ability to repay loans, the utilization of leverage and financial covenants related thereto, whether the company carries adequate insurance and environmental factors. Real estate related instruments may also be subject to additional risks including: environmental liabilities, difficulty in valuing and selling the real estate, and economic or regulatory changes.
Diversification does not guarantee a profit or eliminate the risk of loss.
While US Treasuries are backed by the full faith and credit of the US Government, they are subject to interest rate and inflation risk.
Preferred stock generally has a preference as to dividends and liquidation over an issuer’s common stock but ranks junior to debt securities in an issuer’s capital structure. Unlike interest payments on debt securities, preferred stock dividends are payable only if declared by the issuer’s board of directors. Preferred stock also may be subject to optional or mandatory redemption provisions.
Although bonds generally present less short-term risk and volatility than stocks, the bond market is volatile and investing in bond funds involves interest rate risk; as interest rates rise, bond prices usually fall, and vice versa. Bond funds also entail issuer and counterparty credit risk, and the risk of default. Additionally, bond funds generally involve greater inflation risk than stocks.
Investments in convertible securities are subject to the risks associated with both fixed income securities, including credit risk and interest rate risk, and common stocks. Convertible securities may have lower yields because they offer the opportunity to be converted into stocks and if the stock is underperforming and the bond does not convert, then the bond may have a lower return than a non-convertible bond.
Alternative products typically hold more non-traditional investments and employ more complex trading strategies, including hedging and leveraging through derivatives, short selling and opportunistic strategies that change with market conditions. Investors considering alternatives should be aware of their unique characteristics and additional risks from the strategies they use. Like all investments, performance will fluctuate. You can lose money.
Energy stocks may be adversely affected by foreign, federal or state regulations governing energy production, distribution and sale as well as supply-and-demand for energy resources.
A value style of investing is subject to the risk that the valuations never improve or that the returns will trail other styles of investing or the overall stock markets.
The opinions expressed are those of the author, are based on current market conditions and are subject to change without notice. These opinions may differ from those of other Invesco investment professionals.
There is no guarantee any outlooks mentioned will come to pass. Past performance cannot guarantee comparable future results.
Alerian MLP Index is a composite of the 50 most prominent energy master limited partnerships calculated by Standard & Poor’s using a float-adjusted market capitalization.
BarclayHedge Currency Traders Index is an equal weighted composite of managed programs that trade currency futures and/or cash forwards in the inter-bank market.
BarclayHedge Equity Market Neutral Index includes funds that attempt to exploit equity market inefficiencies and usually involves being simultaneously long and short matched equity portfolios of the same size within a country. Market neutral portfolios are designed to be either beta or currency neutral, or both. Well-designed portfolios typically control for industry, sector, market capitalization, and other exposures. Leverage is often applied to enhance returns. Only funds that provide net returns are included in the index calculation.
BarclayHedge Fixed Income Arbitrage Index includes funds that aim to profit from price anomalies between related interest rate securities. Most managers trade globally with a goal of generating steady returns with low volatility. This category includes interest rate swap arbitrage, US and non-US government bond arbitrage and forward yield curve arbitrage. Only funds that provide net returns are included in the index calculation.
BarclayHedge Global Macro Index includes funds that carry long and short positions in any of the world’s major capital or derivative markets. These positions reflect their views on overall market direction as influenced by major economic trends and or events. The portfolios of these funds can include stocks, bonds, currencies, and commodities in the form of cash or derivatives instruments. Most funds invest globally in both developed and emerging markets. Only funds that provide net returns are included in the index calculation.
BarclayHedge Long/Short Index includes funds employ a directional strategy involving equity-oriented investing on both the long and short sides of the market. The objective is not to be market neutral. Managers have the ability to shift from value to growth, from small to medium to large capitalization stocks, and from a net long position to a net short position. Managers may use futures and options to hedge. The focus may be regional or sector specific. Only funds that provide net returns are included in the index calculation.
BarclayHedge Multi Strategy Index includes funds that are characterized by their ability to dynamically allocate capital among strategies falling within several traditional hedge fund disciplines. The use of many strategies, and the ability to reallocate capital between them in response to market opportunities, means that such funds are not easily assigned to any traditional category. Only funds that provide net returns are included in the index calculation.
Barclays Corporate Bond Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of publicly issued US corporate and specified foreign debentures and secured notes that meet the specified maturity, liquidity, and quality requirements. To qualify, bonds must be SEC-registered.
Barclays Emerging Markets Hard Currency Aggregate Index is a flagship hard currency Emerging Markets debt benchmark that includes USD, EUR, and GBP-denominated debt from sovereign, quasi-sovereign, and corporate EM issuers.
Barclays Global Aggregate Credit USD Hedged Index is an unmanaged portfolio of globally issued debt securities.
Barclays Global Aggregate ex-U.S. Bond Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of bonds of foreign countries.
Barclays High Yield Index is an unmanaged index that covers the US dollar-denominated, non-investment grade, fixed-rate, taxable corporate bond market.
Barclays High Yield Municipal Index is generally representative of bonds that are noninvestment grade, unrated or rated below Ba1.
Barclays Global High Yield USD Hedged Index provides a broad-based measure of the global high-yield fixed income markets.
Barclays Municipal Bond Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of the tax-exempt bond market.
Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of the US investment-grade, fixed-rate bond market.
Barclays U.S. Corporate High Yield Index is representative of the universe of fixed-rate, non-investment grade debt.
Barclays U.S. High Yield 2% Issuer Cap Index is an unmanaged index that tracks the performance of U.S. non-investment grade bonds and limits each issuer to 2% of the index.
Barclays U.S. Corporate Investment Grade Index is an unmanaged index consisting of publicly issued U.S. Corporate and specified foreign debentures and secured notes that are rated investment grade (Baa3/BBB- or higher) by at least two ratings agencies, have at least one year to final maturity and have at least $250 million par amount outstanding.
Barclays U.S. Government Bond Index is a market value weighted index of US Government and government agency securities (other than mortgage securities) with maturities of one year or more.
Barclays U.S. TIPS Index is an unmanaged index that measures the performance of the US Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (“TIPS”) market.
Bloomberg Commodity Index is a broadly diversified index that allows investors to track commodity futures through a single, simple measure.
BofA Merrill Lynch All Convertibles All Qualities Index is a total return index composed of convertible securities that span all corporate sectors, have a par amount outstanding of $25 million or more, and a maturity of at least one year.
BofA Merrill Lynch Municipal 3–7 Years Index consists of bonds with an outstanding par greater than or equal to $25 million and a maturity range between three and seven years.
BofA Merrill Lynch Preferred Stock Fixed Rate Index tracks the performance of fixed rate US dollar denominated preferred securities issued in the US domestic market. Qualifying securities must have an investment grade rating and must have an investment grade rated country of risk.
Credit Suisse Leveraged Loan Index represents tradable, senior-secured, US-dollar-denominated, noninvestment-grade loans.
DJ U.S. Select Dividend Index screens stocks by dividend per share growth rate, dividend payout percentage rate, and average daily dollar trading volume, and stocks are selected based on dividend yield.
Dow Jones UBS Commodity Index is designed to be a liquid and diversified benchmark for the commodity futures market. It is a rolling index composed of futures contracts on 19 physical commodities traded on US exchanges.
FTSE EPRA/NAREIT Developed ex-U.S. Index is designed to track the performance of listed real estate companies and REITS.
FTSE EPRA/NAREIT Netherlands Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of Dutch real estate companies and REITs.
FTSE NAREIT All Equity REITs Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of US REITs.
HFN Fixed Income Arbitrage Index includes funds that attempt to exploit pricing inefficiencies between credit sensitive instruments which may include government or corporate debt, structured securities and their related derivatives.
JP Morgan GBI-Emerging Markets Diversified Index is a comprehensive global local emerging markets index, and consists of liquid, fixed-rate, domestic currency government bonds.
MSCI EAFE Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of stocks of Europe, Australasia and the Far East.
MSCI Emerging Markets Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of stocks of developing countries.
MSCI Europe Index is a free float-adjusted market capitalization weighted index that is designed to measure the equity market performance of the developed markets in Europe.
MSCI USA Index is a free float adjusted market capitalization index that is designed to measure large and mid-cap US equity market performance.
MSCI World Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of stocks of developed countries.
Russell 1000 Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of large-cap stocks.
Russell 1000 Growth Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of large-cap growth stocks.
Russell 1000 Value Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of large-cap value stocks.
Russell 2000 Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of small-cap stocks.
Russell Midcap Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of mid-cap stocks.
S&P 500 Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of the US stock market.
S&P 500 Pure Value Index measures value in separate dimensions across six risk factors. Value factors include book value to price ratio, earnings to price ratio, and sales to price ratio. The Pure Style Index only includes those stocks from the parent index that exhibit strong Value Characteristics, and weights them by style score.
S&P/LSTA Leveraged Loan Index is a weekly total return index that tracks the current outstanding balance and spread over Libor for fully funded term loans.
The Russell Indices are trademarks/service marks of the Frank Russell Co. Russell® is a trademark of the Frank Russell Co.
Unmanaged index returns do not reflect fees, expenses, or sales charges. An investment cannot be made directly in an index.
10-Year Treasury, US Government Obligations may be, (i) supported by the full faith and credit of the US Treasury, (ii) supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the US Treasury, (iii) supported by the discretionary authority of the US Government to purchase the agency’s obligations, or (iv) supported only by the credit of the instrumentality. There is a risk that the US Government may choose not to provide financial support to US Government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities if it is not legally obligated to do so. In that case, if the issuer were to default, a portfolio holding securities of such issuer might not be able to recover its investment from the US Government.
Correlation indicates the degree to which two investments have historically moved in the same direction and magnitude. A greater positive correlation (+1.00 maximum) means the two investments have behaved more similarly; a greater negative correlation (1.00 maximum) means the two have performed less similarly.
Duration is a measure of the sensitivity of the price (the value of principal) of a fixed-income investment to a change in interest rates. Duration is expressed as a number of years.
Foreign Exchange (FX) refers to the exchange or conversion of one currency for another, or the global market where currencies are traded.
Forward Price-Earnings (P/E) Ratio is one measure of the price-earnings ratio that uses forecasted earnings (usually for the next 12 months or the next full fiscal year), rather than current earnings, for the calculation.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period, though GDP is usually calculated on an annual basis. It includes all of private and public consumption, government outlays, investments and exports less imports that occur within a defined territory.
Maximum Drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund's investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund's peak value to the fund's valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund's retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund's peak to the fund's valley (length), and the time from the fund's valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund's data record.
Mortgage-Backed Security (MBS) refers to a type of asset-backed security that is secured by a mortgage or collection of mortgages.
Philadelphia 6-Month Capex refers to the Philadelphia Fed Survey, a business outlook survey used to construct an index that tracks manufacturing conditions in the Philadelphia Federal Reserve district. The Philadelphia Fed survey is an indicator of trends in the manufacturing sector, and is correlated with the Institute for Supply Management (ISM) manufacturing index, as well as the industrial production index.
Price-Book (P/B) Ratio is a financial ratio used to compare a company's current market price to its book value.
Price-Cash Flow Ratio the ratio of a stock’s price to its cash flow per share which is an indicator of a stock’s valuation.
Price-Earnings (P/E) Ratio is a valuation ratio of a company’s current share price compared to its per-share earnings.
Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) is a closed-end investment company that owns assets related to real estate such as buildings, land and real estate securities. REITs sell on the major stock market exchanges similar to common stock.
Standard Deviation measures a fund’s range of total returns and identifies the spread of a fund’s short-term fluctuations.