Invesco Oppenheimer Global Multi-Asset Growth FundBalanced | Global Balanced
Objective & Strategy
The Fund seeks capital appreciation. The strategy dynamically allocates across a broad range of traditional and non-traditional growth assets and strategies.
Morningstar Rating™Overall Rating - World Allocation Category
As of 08/31/2019 the Fund had an overall rating of 2 stars out of 392 funds and was rated 2 stars out of 392 funds, N/A stars out of 317 funds and N/A stars out of 182 funds for the 3-, 5- and 10- year periods, respectively.
Source: Morningstar Inc. Ratings are based on a risk-adjusted return measure that accounts for variation in a fund's monthly performance, placing more emphasis on downward variations and rewarding consistent performance. Open-end mutual funds and exchange-traded funds are considered a single population for comparison purposes. Ratings are calculated for funds with at least a three year history. The overall rating is derived from a weighted average of three-, five- and 10-year rating metrics, as applicable, excluding sales charges and including fees and expenses. ©2019 Morningstar Inc. All rights reserved. The information contained herein is proprietary to Morningstar and/or its content providers. It may not be copied or distributed and is not warranted to be accurate, complete or timely. Neither Morningstar nor its content providers are responsible for any damages or losses arising from any use of this information. Past performance does not guarantee future results. The top 10% of funds in a category receive five stars, the next 22.5% four stars, the next 35% three stars, the next 22.5% two stars and the bottom 10% one star. Ratings are subject to change monthly. Had fees not been waived and/or expenses reimbursed currently or in the past, the Morningstar rating would have been lower. Ratings for other share classes may differ due to different performance characteristics.
Mark Ahnrud, CFA
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John Burrello, CAIA
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Chris Devine, CFA
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Scott Hixon, CFA
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Christian Ulrich, CFA
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Scott Wolle, CFA
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Top Equity Holdings | View all
|% of Total Assets|
|INVESCO RUSSELL 1000 DYNAMIC MULTIFACTOR ETF OMFL||6.32|
|LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton||0.87|
May not equal 100% due to rounding.
Holdings are subject to change and are not buy/sell recommendations.
Average Annual Returns (%)
|YTD (%)||1Y (%)||3Y (%)||5Y (%)||10Y (%)|
Annualized Benchmark Returns
|Index Name||1 Mo (%)||3 Mo (%)||1Y (%)||3Y (%)||5Y (%)||10Y (%)|
|MSCI AC World IX ND||-2.37||4.33||-0.28||9.17||5.51||8.61|
|MSCI AC World IX ND||-2.37||4.33||-0.28||9.17||5.51||8.61|
|MSCI AC World IX ND||6.55||3.61||5.74||11.62||6.16||10.15|
|MSCI AC World IX ND||6.55||3.61||5.74||11.62||6.16||10.15|
Source: RIMES Technologies Corp.
Source: RIMES Technologies Corp.
An investment cannot be made directly in an index.
Expense Ratio per Prospectus
|Total Other Expenses||0.67|
|Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses (Underlying Fund Fees & Expenses)||0.17|
|Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses||1.84|
|Net Expenses - PER PROSPECTUS||1.29|
|Net Expenses - With Additional Fee Reduction||1.29|
|Ex-Date||Income||Short Term||Long Term|
|3-Year Sharpe Ratio||0.29|
|3-Year Standard Deviation||9.84|
|Number of Securities||376|
Source: RIMES Technologies Corp., StyleADVISOR
Benchmark: MSCI AC World IX ND
Top Equity Holdings | View all
|% of Total Assets|
|INVESCO RUSSELL 1000 DYNAMIC MULTIFACTOR ETF OMFL||6.32|
|LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton||0.87|
May not equal 100% due to rounding.
Holdings are subject to change and are not buy/sell recommendations.
Asset Allocation Risk. Because the Fund typically invests in a combination of securities, the Fund's ability to achieve its investment objective depends largely upon selecting the best mix of investments. There is the risk that the portfolio managers' evaluations and assumptions regarding market conditions may be incorrect. During periods of rapidly rising stock prices, the Fund might not achieve growth in its share prices to the same degree as funds focusing only on stocks. The Fund's investments in stocks may make it more difficult to preserve principal during periods of stock market volatility. The Fund's use of a particular investment style might not be successful when that style is out of favor and the Fund's performance may be adversely affected by the asset allocation decisions.
Risks of Investing in Stocks. The value of the Fund's portfolio may be affected by changes in the stock markets. Stock markets may experience significant short-term volatility and may fall sharply at times. Adverse events in any part of the equity or fixed-income markets may have unexpected negative effects on other market segments. Different stock markets may behave differently from each other and U.S. stock markets may move in the opposite direction from one or more foreign stock markets.
The prices of individual stocks generally do not all move in the same direction at the same time. A variety of factors can negatively affect the price of a particular company's stock. These factors may include, but are not limited to: poor earnings reports, a loss of customers, litigation against the company, general unfavorable performance of the company's sector or industry, or changes in government regulations affecting the company or its industry. To the extent that securities of a particular type are emphasized (for example foreign stocks, stocks of small- or mid-cap companies, growth or value stocks, or stocks of companies in a particular industry),fund share values may fluctuate more in response to events affecting the market for those types of securities.
Risks of Other Equity Securities. Most convertible securities are subject to the risks and price fluctuations of the underlying stock. They may be subject to the risk that the issuer will not be able to pay interest or dividends when due and their market value may change based on changes in the issuer's credit rating or the market's perception of the issuer's creditworthiness. Some convertible preferred stocks have a conversion or call feature that allows the issuer to redeem the stock before the conversion date, which could diminish the potential for capital appreciation on the investment. The fixed dividend rate of preferred stocks may cause their prices to behave more like those of debt securities. If interest rates rise, the value of preferred stock having a fixed dividend rate tends to fall. Preferred stock generally ranks behind debt securities in claims for dividends and assets of the issuer in a liquidation or bankruptcy. The price of a warrant does not necessarily move parallel to the price of the underlying security and is generally more volatile than that of the underlying security. Rights are similar to warrants, but normally have a shorter duration. The market for rights or warrants may be very limited and it may be difficult to sell them promptly at an acceptable price. Rights and warrants have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.
Risks of Growth Investing. If a growth company's earnings or stock price fails to increase as anticipated, or if its business plans do not produce the expected results, its securities may decline sharply. Growth companies may be newer or smaller companies that may experience greater stock price fluctuations and risks of loss than larger, more established companies. Newer growth companies tend to retain a large part of their earnings for research, development or investments in capital assets. Therefore, they may not pay any dividends for some time. Growth investing has gone in and out of favor during past market cycles and is likely to continue to do so. During periods when growth investing is out of favor or when markets are unstable, it may be more difficult to sell growth company securities at an acceptable price. Growth stocks may also be more volatile than other securities because of investor speculation.
Risks of Small- and Mid-Cap Companies. Small-cap companies may be either established or newer companies, including "unseasoned" companies that have typically been in operation for less than three years. Mid-cap companies are generally companies that have completed their initial start-up cycle, and in many cases have established markets and developed seasoned market teams. While smaller companies might offer greater opportunities for gain than larger companies, they also may involve greater risk of loss. They may be more sensitive to changes in a company's earnings expectations and may experience more abrupt and erratic price movements. Small- and mid-cap companies' securities may trade in lower volumes and it might be harder for the Fund to dispose of its holdings at an acceptable price when it wants to sell them. Small- and mid-cap companies may not have established markets for their products or services and may have fewer customers and product lines. They may have more limited access to financial resources and may not have the financial strength to sustain them through business downturns or adverse market conditions. Since small- and mid-cap companies typically reinvest a high proportion of their earnings in their business, they may not pay dividends for some time,particularly if they are newer companies. Small- and mid-cap companies may have unseasoned management or less depth in management skill than larger, more established companies. They may be more reliant on the efforts of particular members of their management team and management changes may pose a greater risk to the success of the business. It may take a substantial period of time before the Fund realizes a gain on an investment in a small- or mid-cap company, if it realizes any gain at all.
Dividend Risk. There is no guarantee that the issuers of the stocks held by the Fund will declare dividends in the future or that, if dividends are declared, they will remain at their current levels or increase over time. Depending on market conditions, dividend paying stocks that also meet the Fund's investment criteria may not be widely available for purchase by the Fund. This may increase the volatility of the Fund's returns and may limit the ability of the Fund to produce current income while remaining fully diversified. High-dividend stocks may not experience high earnings growth or capital appreciation. The Fund's performance during a broad market advance could suffer because dividend paying stocks may not experience the same capital appreciation as non-dividend paying stocks.
Risks of Investments in Other Investment Companies. As an investor in another investment company, the Fund would be subject to the risks of that investment company's portfolio. Investing in another investment company may also involve paying a premium above the value of that investment company's portfolio securities and is subject to a ratable share of that investment company's expenses, including its advisory and administration expenses. The Fund does not intend to invest in other investment companies unless it is believed that the potential benefits of the investment justify the payment of any premiums, expenses or sales charges. The Investment Company Act of 1940 also imposes limitations on mutual funds' investments in other investment companies.
The Fund may also invest in exchange-traded funds (ETFs), which are subject to all the risks of investing in investment companies as described above. Because ETFs are listed on national stock exchanges and are traded like stocks listed on an exchange, shares of ETFs potentially may trade at a discount or a premium to their net asset value. Investments in ETFs are also subject to brokerage and other trading costs, which could result in greater expenses to the Fund.
Risks of Investing in Debt Securities. Debt securities may be subject to interest rate risk, duration risk, credit risk, credit spread risk, extension risk, reinvestment risk, prepayment risk and event risk. Interest rate risk is the risk that when prevailing interest rates fall, the values of already-issued debt securities generally rise; and when prevailing interest rates rise, the values of already-issued debt securities generally fall, and therefore, those debt securities may be worth less than the amount the Fund paid for them or valued them. When interest rates change, the values of longer-term debt securities usually change more than the values of shorter-term debt securities. Risks associated with rising interest rates are heightened given that interest rates in the U.S. are near historic lows. Duration is a measure of the price sensitivity of a debt security or portfolio to interest rate changes. Duration risk is the risk that longer-duration debt securities will be more volatile and thus more likely to decline in price, and to a greater extent, in arising interest rate environment than shorter-duration debt securities. Credit risk is the risk that the issuer of a security might not make interest and principal payments on the security as they become due. If an issuer fails to pay interest or repay principal, the Fund's income or share value might be reduced. Adverse news about an issuer or a downgrade in an issuer's credit rating, for any reason, can also reduce the market value of the issuer's securities. "Credit spread" is the difference in yield between securities that is due to differences in their credit quality. There is a risk that credit spreads may increase when the market expects lower-grade bonds to default more frequently. Widening credit spreads may quickly reduce the market values of the Fund's lower-rated and unrated securities. Some unrated securities may not have an active trading market or may trade less actively than rated securities, which means that the Fund might have difficulty selling them promptly at an acceptable price. Extension risk is the risk that an increase in interest rates could cause prepayments on a debt security to occur at a slower rate than expected. Extension risk is particularly prevalent for a callable security where an increase in interest rates could result in the issuer of that security choosing not to redeem the security as anticipated on the security's call date. Such a decision by the issuer could have the effect of lengthening the debt security's expected maturity,making it more vulnerable to interest rate risk and reducing its market value. Reinvestment risk is the risk that when interest rates fall the Fund may be required to reinvest the proceeds from a security's sale or redemption at a lower interest rate. Callable bonds are generally subject to greater reinvestment risk than non-callable bonds. Prepayment risk is the risk that the issuer may redeem the security prior to the expected maturity or that borrowers may repay the loans that underlie these securities more quickly than expected, thereby causing the issuer of the security to repay the principal prior to the expected maturity. The Fund may need to reinvest the proceeds at a lower interest rate, reducing its income. Event risk is the risk that an issuer could be subject to an event, such as a buyout or debt restructuring, that interferes with its ability to make timely interest and principal payments and cause the value of its debt securities to fall.
Fixed-Income Market Risks. The fixed-income securities market can be susceptible to increases in volatility and decreases in liquidity. Liquidity may decline unpredictably in response to overall economic conditions or credit tightening. During times of reduced market liquidity, the Fund may not be able to readily sell bonds at the prices at which they are carried on the Fund's books and could experience a loss. If the Fund needed to sell large blocks of bonds to meet shareholder redemption requests or to raise cash, those sales could further reduce the bonds' prices, particularly for lower-rated and unrated securities. An unexpected increase in redemptions by Fund shareholders (including requests from shareholders who may own a significant percentage of the Fund's shares), which may be triggered by general market turmoil or an increase in interest rates, as well as other adverse market and economic developments, could cause the Fund to sell its holdings at a loss or at undesirable prices and adversely affect the Fund's share price and increase the Fund's liquidity risk, Fund expenses and/or taxable capital gain distributions to shareholders, if applicable. As of the date of this prospectus, interest rates in the U.S. are near historically low levels, increasing the exposure of bond investors to the risks associated with rising interest rates.
Economic and other market developments can adversely affect fixed-income securities markets in the United States, Europe and elsewhere. At times, participants in debt securities markets may develop concerns about the ability of certain issuers of debt securities to make timely principal and interest payments, or they may develop concerns about the ability of financial institutions that make markets in certain debt securities to facilitate an orderly market. Those concerns may impact the market price or value of those debt securities and may cause increased volatility in those debt securities or debt securities markets. Under some circumstances, those concerns may cause reduced liquidity in certain debt securities markets,reducing the willingness of some lenders to extend credit, and making it more difficult for borrowers to obtain financing on attractive terms (or at all). A lack of liquidity or other adverse credit market conditions may ham-per the Fund's ability to sell the debt securities in which it invests or to find and purchase suitable debt instruments.
Risks of Below-Investment-Grade Securities. As compared to investment-grade debt securities, below-investment grade debt securities(also referred to as "junk" bonds), whether rated or unrated, may be subject to greater price fluctuations and increased credit risk, as the issuer might not be able to pay interest and principal when due, especially during times of weakening economic conditions or rising interest rates. Credit rating downgrades of a single issuer or related similar issuers whose securities the Fund holds in significant amounts could substantially and unexpectedly increase the Fund's exposure to below-investment-grade securities and the risks associated with them, especially liquidity and default risk. The market for below-investment-grade securities may be less liquid and therefore these securities may be harder to value or sell at an acceptable price, especially during times of market volatility or decline.
Risks of Exchange-Traded Notes (ETNs). ETNs are senior, unsecured,unsubordinated debt securities traded on an exchange (e.g., the NYSE)whose returns are linked to the performance of a particular market index or strategy, minus applicable fees. ETNs are subject to credit risk, and the value of an ETN may drop due to a downgrade in the issuer's credit rating. An ETN may lose all or a portion of its value if the issuer fails. The value of an ETN may also be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying assets,changes in applicable interest rates, and economic, legal, political or geographic events that affect the underlying assets on which the index is based. The Fund may invest substantially in ETNs that are subject to the risks associated with industry or sector concentration. When the Fund invests in an ETN it will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses borne by the ETN, which will reduce the return realized at maturity or upon redemption. The Fund's decision to sell ETN holdings maybe limited by the availability of a secondary market and it may not be able to liquidate ETN holdings at the desired time or price.
Risks of Foreign Investing. Foreign securities are subject to special risks. Securities traded in foreign markets may be less liquid and more volatile than those traded in U.S. markets. Foreign issuers are usually not subject to the same accounting and disclosure requirements that U.S. companies are subject to, which may make it difficult for the Fund to evaluate a foreign company's operations or financial condition. A change in the value of a foreign currency against the U.S. dollar will result in a change in the U.S. dollar value of investments denominated in that foreign currency and in the value of any income or distributions the Fund may receive on those investments. The value of foreign investments may be affected by exchange control regulations, foreign taxes, higher transaction and other costs, delays in the settlement of transactions, changes in economic or monetary policy in the United States or abroad, expropriation or nationalization of a company's assets, or other political and economic factors. In addition, due to the inter-relationship of global economies and financial markets, changes in political and economic factors in one country or region could adversely affect conditions in another country or region. Investments in foreign securities may also expose the Fund to time-zone arbitrage risk. Foreign securities may trade on weekends or other days when the Fund does not price its shares. As a result, the value of the Fund's net assets may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or redeem the Fund's shares. At times, the Fund may emphasize investments in a particular country or region and may be subject to greater risks from adverse events that occur in that country or region. Foreign securities and foreign currencies held in foreign banks and securities depositories may be subject to only limited or no regulatory oversight.
Risks of Developing and Emerging Markets. Investments in developing and emerging markets are subject to all the risks associated with foreign investing, however, these risks may be magnified in developing and emerging markets. Developing or emerging market countries may have less well-developed securities markets and exchanges that may be substantially less liquid than those of more developed markets. Settlement procedures in developing or emerging markets may differ from those of more established securities markets, and settlement delays may result in the inability to invest assets or to dispose of portfolio securities in a timely manner. Securities prices in developing or emerging markets may be significantly more volatile than is the case in more developed nations of the world, and governments of developing or emerging market countries may also be more unstable than the governments of more developed countries. Such countries' economies may be more dependent on relatively few industries or investors that may be highly vulnerable to local and global changes. Developing or emerging market countries also may be subject to social,political or economic instability. The value of developing or emerging market countries' currencies may fluctuate more than the currencies of countries with more mature markets. Investments in developing or emerging market countries may be subject to greater risks of government restrictions, including confiscatory taxation, expropriation or nationalization of a company's assets, restrictions on foreign ownership of local companies, restrictions on withdrawing assets from the country, protectionist measures, and practices such as share blocking. In addition, the ability of foreign entities to participate in privatization programs of certain developing or emerging market countries may be limited by local law. Investments insecurities of issuers in developing or emerging market countries may be considered speculative.
Eurozone Investment Risks. Certain of the regions in which the Fund may invest, including the European Union (EU), currently experience significant financial difficulties. Following the global economic crisis that began in 2008, some of these countries have depended on, and may continue to be dependent on, the assistance from others such as the European Central Bank (ECB) or other governments or institutions, and failure to implement reforms as a condition of assistance could have a significant adverse effect on the value of investments in those and other European countries. In addition, countries that have adopted the euro are subject to fiscal and monetary controls that could limit the ability to implement their own economic policies, and could voluntarily abandon, or be forced out of,the euro. Such events could impact the market values of Eurozone and various other securities and currencies, cause redenomination of certain securities into less valuable local currencies, and create more volatile and illiquid markets. Additionally, the United Kingdom's intended departure from the EU, commonly known as "Brexit," may have significant political and financial consequences for Eurozone markets, including greater market volatility and illiquidity, currency fluctuations, deterioration in economic activity, a decrease in business confidence and an increased likelihood of a recession in the United Kingdom.
Risks of Sovereign Debt. Sovereign debt instruments are subject to the risk that a governmental entity may delay or refuse, or otherwise be unable,to pay interest or repay principal on its sovereign debt. If a governmental entity defaults, it may ask for more time in which to pay or for further loans. There is no legal process for collecting sovereign debt that a government does not pay nor are there bankruptcy proceedings through which all or part of such sovereign debt may be collected. A restructuring or default of sovereign debt may also cause additional impacts to the financial markets,such as downgrades to credit ratings, a flight to quality debt instruments,disruptions in common trading markets or unions, reduced liquidity,increased volatility, and heightened financial sector, foreign securities and currency risk, among others.
Risks of Master Limited Partnerships. Investments in securities of master limited partnerships (MLPs) are subject to all the risks of investments in common stock, in addition to risks related to the following: a common unit holder's limited control and limited rights to vote on matters affecting the MLP; potential conflicts of interest between the MLP and the MLP's general partner; cash flow; dilution; and the general partner's right to require unit holders to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price. MLP common unit holders may not elect the general partner or its directors and have limited ability to remove an MLP's general partner. MLPs may issue additional common units without unit holder approval, which could dilute the ownership interests of investors holding MLP common units. MLP common units, like other equity securities, can be affected by macro-economic and other factors affecting the stock market in general, expectations of interest rates, investor sentiment towards an issuer or certain market sector, changes in a particular issuer's financial condition, or unfavorable or unanticipated poor performance of a particular issuer. Prices of common units of individual MLPs, like prices of other equity securities, also can be affected by fundamentals unique to the partnership or company, including earnings power and coverage ratios. A holder of MLP common units typically would not be shielded to the same extent that a shareholder of a corporation would be. In certain circumstances, creditors of an MLP would have the right to seek return of capital distributed to a limited partner, which would continue after an investor sold its investment in the MLP. The value of an MLP security may decline for reasons that directly relate to the issuer, such as management performance, financial leverage and reduced demand for the issuer's products or services. Due to the heavy state and federal regulations that an MLP's assets may be subject to, an MLP's profitability could be adversely impacted by changes in the regulatory environment.
MLP Tax Risk. MLPs are generally treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a partnership, subject to the application of certain partnership audit rules, MLPs generally do not pay U.S. federal income tax at the partnership level. Rather, each partner is allocated a share of the partnership's income, gains, losses, deductions and expenses regardless of whether it receives a cash distribution from the MLP. A change in current tax law, or a change in the underlying business mix of a given MLP, could result in an MLP being treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could result in the MLP being required to pay federal income tax (as well as state and local income taxes) on its taxable income. This could have the effect of reducing the amount of cash available for distribution by the MLP, resulting in a reduction of the value of the Fund's investment in the MLP and lower income to the Fund.
To the extent a distribution received by the Fund from an MLP is treated as a return of capital, the Fund's adjusted tax basis in the interests of the MLP may be reduced, which will result in an increase in an amount of income or gain (or decrease in the amount of loss) that will be recognized by the Fund for tax purposes upon the sale of any such interests or upon subsequent distributions in respect of such interests. Furthermore, any return of capital distribution received from the MLP may require the Fund to restate the character of its distributions and amend any shareholder tax reporting previously issued. Changes in the laws, regulations or related interpretations relating to the Fund's investments in MLPs could increase the Fund's expenses, reduce its cash distributions, negatively impact the value of an investment in an MLP, or otherwise impact the Fund's ability to implement its investment strategy.
MLP Debt Securities Risks.MLP debt securities, including bonds and debentures, are subject to all the risks of investments in fixed income securities of other issuers, in addition to the risks of the MLPs.
Liquidity Risks of MLP Securities. Although MLPs trade publicly, certain MLP securities may trade less frequently than those of larger companies due to their smaller capitalizations. When certain MLP securities experience limited trading volumes, they may experience abrupt or erratic price movements at times. Investments in securities that are less actively traded or over time experience decreased trading volume may restrict the Fund's ability to take advantage of other market opportunities or to dispose of securities, which may affect adversely its ability to make dividend distributions.
Risks of Energy Infrastructure and Energy-Related Assets or Activities. Energy infrastructure MLPs are subject to risks specific to the energy and energy-related industries, including, but not limited to: fluctuations in commodity prices may impact the volume of energy commodities trans-ported, processed, stored or distributed; reduced volumes of natural gas or other energy commodities available for transporting, processing, storing or distributing may affect the profitability of an MLP; slowdowns in new construction and acquisitions can limit growth potential; reduced demand for oil, natural gas and petroleum products, particularly for a sustained period of time, could adversely affect MLP revenues and cash flows; depletion of natural gas reserves or other commodities, if not replaced, could impact an MLP's ability to make distributions; changes in the regulatory environment could adversely affect the profitability of MLPs; extreme weather and environmental hazards could impact the value of MLP securities; rising interest rates could result in higher costs of capital and drive investors into other investment opportunities; and threats of attack by terrorists on energy assets could impact the market for MLPs.
Risks of Investing in Real Estate Markets. The performance of the Fund's investments in real estate securities is closely linked to the performance of the real estate markets. Property values or revenues from real estate investments may fall due to many different factors, including market dis-ruptions, declining rents, negative economic developments that affect businesses and individuals, increased operating costs, low market demand or oversupply, obsolescence, competition, uninsured casualty losses,condemnation losses, environmental liabilities, the failure of borrowers to repay loans in a timely manner, changes in prevailing interest rates or rates of inflation, lack of available credit or changes in federal or state taxation policies that affect real estate. The price of a real estate company's securities may also drop due to dividend reductions, lowered credit ratings, poor management, or other factors that generally affect companies. Real estate companies, including REITs and real estate operating companies (REOCs),tend to be small- and mid-cap companies and their shares may be more volatile and less liquid. An industry downturn could adversely impact the Fund's performance.
Smaller Real Estate Company Risks. Smaller companies are typically subject to greater risk of loss than larger companies. They may be more sensitive to changes in a company's earnings expectations and may experience more price volatility. Smaller companies' securities often trade in lower volumes and may be harder to sell at an acceptable price. Buy and sell transactions in a smaller company's stock could impact the stock's price more than it would a larger company's stock. Smaller real estate companies may have limited access to financial and other resources and lack liquidity in a declining market. They may have unseasoned management and may be more sensitive to changes in management or depth of management skill than larger, more established companies.
Risks of Investing in REITs. Investment in REITs is closely linked to the performance of the real estate markets. Property values or revenues from real estate investments may fall due to a number of factors, including but not limited to disruptions in real estate markets, increased vacancies or declining rents, increased property taxes and other operating costs, low demand or oversupply, the failure of borrowers to repay loans in a timely manner, changes in tax and regulatory requirements and changes in inter-est rates or rates of inflation. Mortgage REITs are particularly subject to interest rate risks.
REITs are dependent upon the quality of their management and may not be diversified geographically or by property type. REITs whose underlying properties are concentrated in a particular industry or geographic region are subject to risks affecting such industries and regions. REITs generally tend to be small- to mid-cap stocks and are subject to risks of investing in those securities, including limited financial resources and dependency on heavy cash flow. REITs must satisfy certain requirements in order to qualify for favorable tax treatment under applicable tax laws, and a failure to qualify could adversely affect the value of the REIT. By investing in REITs through the Fund, a shareholder will bear expenses of the REITs in addition to expenses of the Fund.
Risks of Foreign Real Estate Investments. Because real estate trends are cyclically unique to different countries and world regions, an up or down real estate market in the U.S. may not coincide with the trend in another country. Fluctuations in the relation of a foreign currency to the U.S. dollar could adversely impact cash flow and profits of real estate companies,which in turn could negatively impact the Fund's performance and ability to pay dividends. Securities of foreign real estate companies may have less trading volume, may lack the level of transparency generally present in U.S. companies, and may be more sensitive to volatility. In emerging markets in particular, real estate ownership laws, land rights and tax laws are subject to rapid and unexpected changes as a result of regulatory and political changes. Foreign real estate investments in those countries are more susceptible to the imposition of adverse or confiscatory taxes on foreign properties, currency transfer restrictions, expropriation and difficulty in enforcing obligations.
Risks of Mining & Metal Industry Securities. Investments in mining and metal industry companies may be speculative and may be subject to greater price volatility than investments in other types of companies. The special risks of mining and metal industry investments include:
- changes in international monetary policies or economic and political conditions can affect the supply of gold and precious metals and consequently the value of mining and metal company investments;
- the United States or foreign governments may pass laws or regulations limiting metal investments for strategic or other policy reasons;
- the principal supplies of gold are concentrated in only five countries or territories: Australia, Canada, Russia and certain other former Soviet Union countries, South Africa and the United States, the governments of which may pass laws or regulations limiting metal investments for strategic or other policy reasons; and
- increased environmental or labor costs may depress the value of mining and metal investments.
Investments in metals entail the risk that the Fund might not qualify as a "regulated investment company" under the Internal Revenue Code, and its income might become subject to income taxes, reducing returns to shareholders.
Risks of Investing in Gold ETFs. An exchange-traded fund or exchange-traded product that invests in gold bullion (Gold ETF) is a publicly-traded investment entity that acquires and physically holds gold bullion, the shares of which are intended to reflect the price performance of gold bullion. A Gold ETF will sell gold from time to time to pay expenses, which will reduce the amount of gold represented by each ETF share. Investment in a Gold ETF is subject to the same risks of investing directly in gold bullion, including tax risk. The market value of Gold ETF shares may differ from their net asset value because the supply and demand of Gold ETF shares may be different from the supply and demand for the underlying asset. The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of the management fees associated with Gold ETFs. It is possible that a Gold ETF in which the Fund invests may have to liquidate its holdings at a time when the price of gold is falling.
Industry and Sector Focus. At times the Fund may increase the relative emphasis of its investments in a particular industry or sector. The prices of stocks of issuers in a particular industry or sector may go up and down in response to changes in economic conditions, government regulations,availability of basic resources or supplies, or other events that affect that industry or sector more than others. To the extent that the Fund increases the relative emphasis of its investments in a particular industry or sector,its share values may fluctuate in response to events affecting that industry or sector. To some extent that risk may be limited by the Fund's policy of not concentrating its investments in any one industry.
Risks of Arbitrage. Arbitrage risk is the risk that securities purchased pursuant to a strategy intended to take advantage of a perceived relation-ship between the value of two or more securities may not perform as expected.
Risks of Alternative Investment Strategies. The Fund utilizes alternative investment strategies, which are strategies that the portfolio managers expect to result in investment performance that does not correlate with the performance of traditional asset classes, such as equity and fixed-income investments. The Fund also seeks to utilize a diverse mix of alternative investment strategies, in the hope that individual strategies yield low performance correlation to other alternative investment strategies used by the Fund. However, alternative investments may be more volatile or illiquid,particularly during periods of market instability, and the Fund cannot guarantee that diverse alternative investment strategies will yield uncorrelated performance under all market conditions. In addition, the particular mix of alternative investments in the Fund's portfolio may not be sufficiently diversified. The Fund is subject to the risk that its alternative investments may undergo a correlation shift, resulting in returns that are correlated with the broader market and/or with the Fund's other alternative investments.
Liquidity Risks. Securities that are difficult to value or to sell promptly at an acceptable price are generally referred to as "illiquid" investments. If it is required to sell investments quickly or at a particular time(including sales to meet redemption requests) the Fund could realize a loss on illiquid investments.
Risks of Derivative Investments. Derivatives may involve significant risks. Derivatives may be more volatile than other types of investments, may require the payment of premiums, may increase portfolio turnover, may be illiquid, and may not perform as expected. Derivatives are subject to counterparty risk and the Fund may lose money on a derivative investment if the issuer or counterparty fails to pay the amount due. Some derivatives have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the Fund's initial investment. As a result of these risks, the Fund could realize little or no income or lose money from its investment, or a hedge might be unsuccessful. In addition, under new rules enacted under financial reform legislation, certain over-the-counter derivatives are required to be executed on a regulated market and/or cleared through a clearinghouse. Entering into a derivative transaction with a clearinghouse may entail further risks and costs.
Risks of Hedging. The Fund may engage in "hedging" strategies, including short sales, futures and other derivatives in an effort to protect assets from losses due to declines in the value of the Fund's portfolio. There are risks in the use of these investment and trading strategies. There can be no assurance that the hedging strategies used will be successful in avoiding losses, and hedged positions may perform less favorably in generally rising markets than unhedged positions. If the Fund uses a hedging strategy at the wrong time or judges market conditions incorrectly, the strategy could reduce the Fund's return. In some cases, derivatives or other investments may be unavailable, or the investment adviser may choose not to use them under market conditions when their use, in hindsight, may be determined to have been beneficial to the Fund. No assurance can be given that the investment adviser will employ hedging strategies with respect to all or any portion of the Fund's assets.
Risks of Leverage. Certain derivatives and other investments of the Fund may involve leverage. Leverage may be created when an investment exposes the Fund to a risk of loss that exceeds the amount invested. Certain derivatives and other investments provide the potential for investment gain or loss that may be several times greater than the change in the value of an underlying security, asset, interest rate, index or currency, resulting in the potential for a loss that may be substantially greater than the amount invested.
Some derivatives and other leveraged investments have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the initial investment. Because leverage can magnify the effects of changes in the value of the Fund and make the Fund's share price more volatile, a shareholder's investment in the Fund will tend to be more volatile, resulting in larger gains or losses in response to the fluctuating prices of the Fund's investments.
Risks of Borrowing and Leverage. The Fund can borrow up to one-third of the value of its assets (including the amount borrowed), as permitted under the Investment Company Act of 1940. It can use those borrowings for a number of purposes, including purchasing securities, which creates "leverage." In that case, changes in the value of the Fund's investments will have a larger effect on its share price than if it did not borrow. Borrowing results in interest payments to the lenders and related expenses. Borrowing for investment purposes might reduce the Fund's return if the yield on the securities purchased is less than those borrowing costs. The Fund may also borrow to meet redemption obligations or for temporary and emergency purposes. The Fund may participate in a line of credit with other funds man-aged by the Adviser and one or more banks as lenders.
Risks of Short Sales. The Fund will incur a loss as a result of a short sale if the price of the security sold short increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Fund closes the short position. A short sale of a security creates the risk of an unlimited loss, since the price of the security sold short could theoretically increase without limit. Purchasing securities previously sold short to close out a short position can itself cause the price of the securities to rise further, thereby increasing the loss. Further, there is no assurance that a security the Fund needs to buy to cover a short position will be available for purchase at a reasonable price. Short sales may cause a higher portfolio turnover rate and increase the Fund's brokerage and other transaction expenses. Short selling is considered a speculative investment practice.
Risks of Long/Short Holdings. Under certain conditions, even if the value of the Fund's long positions are rising, this could be offset by declining values of the Fund's short positions. Conversely, it is possible that rising values of the Fund's short positions could be offset by declining values of the Fund's long positions. In either scenario the Fund may experience losses. In a market where the value of both the Fund's long and short positions are declining, the Fund may experience substantial losses.
Risks of Commodity-Linked Investments. Commodity-linked investments are considered speculative and have substantial risks, including the risk of loss of a significant portion of their principal value. Prices of commodities and commodity-linked investments may fluctuate significantly over short periods due to a variety of factors, including for example agricultural, economic and regulatory developments. These risks may make commodity-linked investments more volatile than other types of investments. Commodity-linked investments entail the risk that the Fund might not qualify as a "regulated investment company" under the Internal Revenue Code and its income may become subject to income taxes, reducing returns to shareholders.
Risks of Money Market Instruments. The Fund may invest in money market instruments. Money market instruments are short-term, US dollar-denominated debt instruments issued or guaranteed by domestic and foreign corporations and financial institutions, the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities and other entities. Money market instruments include certificates of deposit, commercial paper, repurchase agreements, treasury bills, certain asset-backed securities and other short term debt obligations that have a final maturity, as defined under rules under the Investment Company Act of 1940, of 397 days or less. They may have fixed, variable or floating interest rates. Money market instruments are subject to certain risks, including the risk that an issuer of an obligation that the Fund holds might have its credit rating downgraded or might default on its obligations, or that interest rates might rise sharply, causing the value of the Fund's investments to fall.
Risks of Investments in the Fund's Wholly-Owned Subsidiary. The Subsidiary is not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 and is not subject to its investor protections (except as otherwise noted in this prospectus). As an investor in the Subsidiary, the Fund does not have all of the protections offered to investors by the Investment Company Act of 1940. However, the Subsidiary is wholly-owned and controlled by the Fund and managed by the Adviser. Therefore, the Fund's ownership and control of the Subsidiary make it unlikely that the Subsidiary would take actions contrary to the interests of the Fund or its shareholders. In addition,changes in the laws of the United States and/or the Cayman Islands (where the Subsidiary is incorporated) could result in the inability of the Fund and/or the Subsidiary to operate as described in this prospectus and the SAI and could adversely affect the Fund. Changes in the laws of the United States and/or the Cayman Islands could adversely affect the performance of the Fund and/or the Subsidiary. For example, the Cayman Islands currently does not impose certain taxes on exempted companies like the Subsidiary, including income and capital gains tax, among others. If Cay-man Islands laws were changed to require such entities to pay Cayman Islands taxes, the investment returns of the Fund would likely decrease.