Equity | International and Global Equity

Invesco Emerging Markets Equity Trust - Class T

Class T

Class T

  • Class T

Investment Objective

The Fund seeks capital appreciation.

Fund Management

Fund Trustee & Investment manager
Invesco Trust Company (the “Trust Company”) serves as the trustee of the Trust. In addition, the Trust Company is (i) an “investment manager” under Section 3(38) of ERISA and (ii) a fiduciary as defined under Section 3(21) of ERISA with respect to assets of the Participating Trusts that are placed in the Fund.

Fund Sub-Adviser
Invesco Advisers, Inc. (the “Sub-Adviser”), an affiliate of the Trust Company, has been appointed by the Trust Company to render investment advice to the Fund. For more information regarding the Sub-Adviser and the portfolio manager(s), please refer to the Sub-Adviser’s Form ADV Part 2A and 2B.

The Trust Company has delegated to the Sub-Adviser as much of its authority with regard to the management of the Fund as may be permitted by applicable law. As such, the Sub- Adviser will act on behalf of the Trust Company with regard to all of the investment management and other related activities of the Fund (including the exercise of proxy voting or consent rights with respect to the securities in which the Fund may invest), subject to the supervision of the Trust Company. Nevertheless, the Trust Company will remain exclusively liable to the Fund and the Participating Trusts for the performance of its duties.

Fund Benchmark
MSCI Emerging Markets Index
The MSCI Emerging Markets Index is designed to measure equity market performance of emerging markets. Index performance includes reinvestment of income but does not reflect transaction costs, fees, expenses or taxes.


*Since Inception performance is as of the first full month the fund was open. Gross performance has been calculated before the deduction of investment management and client service fees, but after the deduction of all other expenses applicable to the unit class. Net performance has been calculated after the deduction of all fees and expenses applicable to the unit class as well as a hypothetical management fee of 0.85%. Total return assumes reinvestment of dividends and capital gains for the periods indicated. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. Investment return and principal value will vary and you may have a gain or loss when you sell shares. Returns less than one year are cumulative; all others are annualized.

The MSCI Emerging Markets Free Index is an unmanaged index considered representative of stocks of developing countries. An investment cannot be made directly in an index.

Price History

From   to
No history records found for this date range

Important information

Current and prospective participating trusts are strongly encouraged to review the complete terms of the Declaration of Trust for additional details regarding the Fund and its operations. Further information regarding the Fund, including performance and portfolio holdings, can be found at www.InvescoTrustCompany.com.
The Fund is not guaranteed by Invesco, its subsidiaries or affiliates, including Invesco Advisers, Inc. The Fund is not insured by the FDIC or the Federal Reserve Bank, nor guaranteed by any governmental agency.

 Principal Risks of Investing

Risk Factors

The risks of the Fund’s business are substantial. The Fund could realize losses rather than gains from some or all of the investments described herein and there is no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

Risks of Investing in Stocks. The value of the Fund’s portfolio may be affected by changes in the stock markets. Stock markets may experience significant short–term volatility and may fall sharply at times. Adverse events in any part of the equity or fixed–income markets may have unexpected negative effects on other market segments. Different stock markets may behave differently from each other and U.S. stock markets may move in the opposite direction from one or more foreign stock markets.

The prices of individual stocks generally do not all move in the same direction at the same time. However, individual stock prices tend to go up and down more dramatically than those of certain other types of investments, such as bonds. A variety of factors can negatively affect the price of a particular company’s stock. These factors may include, but are not limited to, poor earnings reports, a loss of customers, litigation against the company, general unfavorable performance of the company’s sector or industry, or changes in government regulations affecting the company or its industry. To the extent that securities of a particular type are emphasized (for example foreign stocks, stocks of small– or mid–cap companies, growth or value stocks, or stocks of companies in a particular industry), the Fund’s Unit values may fluctuate more in response to events affecting the market for those types of securities.

Industry and Sector Focus. The Fund may from time to time have a significant amount of invested in a particular industry or sector. The prices of stocks of issuers in a particular industry or sector may go up and down in response to changes in economic conditions, government regulations, availability of basic resources or supplies, or other events that affect that industry or sector more than others. To the extent that the Fund relative has a significant amount of its emphasis of its investments assets invested in a particular industry or sector, its Unit values may fluctuate in response to events affecting that industry or sector. To some extent that risk may be limited by the Fund’s policy of not concentrating its investments in any one industry.

Risks of Foreign Investing. Foreign securities are subject to special risks. Securities traded in foreign markets may be less liquid and more volatile than those traded in U.S. markets. Foreign issuers are usually not subject to the same accounting and disclosure requirements that U.S. companies are subject to, which may make it difficult for the Fund to evaluate a foreign company’s operations or financial condition. A change in the value of a foreign currency against the U.S. dollar will result in a change in the U.S. dollar value of investments denominated in that foreign currency and in the value of any income or distributions the Fund may receive on those investments. The value of foreign investments may be affected by exchange control regulations, foreign taxes, higher transaction and other costs, delays in the settlement of transactions, changes in economic or monetary policy in the United States or abroad, expropriation or nationalization of a company’s assets, or other political and economic factors. In addition, due to the inter–relationship of global economies and financial markets, changes in political and economic factors in one country or region could adversely affect conditions in another country or region. Investments in foreign securities may also expose the Fund to time–zone arbitrage risk. Foreign securities may trade on weekends or other days when the Fund does not price its shares. As a result, the value of the Fund’s net assets may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or redeem the Fund’s shares. At times, the Fund may emphasize investments in a particular country or region and maybe subject to greater risks from adverse events that occur in that country or region. Foreign securities and foreign currencies held in foreign banks and securities depositories may be subject to only limited or no regulatory oversight.

Risks of Developing and Emerging Markets. Investments in developing and emerging markets are subject to all the risks associated with foreign investing, however, these risks may be magnified in developing and emerging markets, and investments in such securities markets may be subject to unexpected market closures. Developing or emerging market countries may have less well– developed securities markets and exchanges that may be substantially less liquid than those of more developed markets. Settlement procedures in developing or emerging markets may differ from those of more established securities markets, and settlement delays may result in the inability to invest assets or to dispose of portfolio securities in a timely manner. Securities prices in developing or emerging markets may be significantly more volatile than is the case in more developed nations of the world, and governments of developing or emerging market countries may also be more unstable than the governments of more developed countries. Such countries’ economies may be more dependent on relatively few industries or investors that may be highly vulnerable to local and global changes. Developing or emerging market countries also may be subject to social, political or economic instability. The value of developing or emerging market countries’ currencies may fluctuate more than the currencies of countries with more mature markets. Investments in developing or emerging market countries may be subject to greater risks of government restrictions, including confiscatory taxation, expropriation or nationalization of a company’s assets, restrictions on foreign ownership of local companies, restrictions on withdrawing assets from the country, protectionist measures, and practices such as share blocking. The ability to bring and enforce actions in developing and emerging market countries, or to obtain information needed to pursue or enforce such actions, may be limited. In addition, the ability of foreign entities to participate in privatization programs of certain developing or emerging market countries may be limited by local law. Other risks may include additional transaction costs and difficulty related to the quality, availability and timeliness of information. Investments in securities of issuers in developing or emerging market countries may be considered speculative.

Companies in developing and emerging market countries may also generally be subject to less stringent regulatory, disclosure, financial reporting, accounting, auditing and recordkeeping standards than companies in more developed countries. As a result, information, including financial information, about such companies may be less available and reliable which can impede the Fund’s ability to evaluate such companies.

Unique Economic and Political Risks of Investing in Greater China. Investments in companies located or operating in Greater China (normally considered to be the geographical area that includes mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) involve risks and considerations not typically associated with investments in the U.S. and other Western nations, such as greater government control over the economy; political, legal and regulatory uncertainty; nationalization, expropriation, or confiscation of property; difficulty in obtaining information necessary for investigations into and/or litigation against Chinese companies, as well as in obtaining and/or enforcing judgments; limited legal remedies for shareholders; alteration or discontinuation of economic reforms; military conflicts, either internal or with other countries; inflation, currency fluctuations and fluctuations in inflation and interest rates that may have negative effects on the economy and securities markets of Greater China; and Greater China’s dependency on the economies of other Asian countries, many of which are developing countries. Events in any one country within Greater China may impact the other countries in the region or Greater China as a whole. Export growth continues to be a major driver of China’s rapid economic growth. As a result, a reduction in spending on Chinese products and services, the institution of additional tariffs or other trade barriers (or the threat thereof), including as a result of trade tensions between China and the United States, or a downturn in any of the economies of China’s key trading partners may have an adverse impact on the Chinese economy. Further, health events, such as the recent coronavirus outbreak, may cause uncertainty and volatility in the Chinese economy, especially in the consumer discretionary (leisure, retail, gaming, tourism), industrials, and commodities sectors.

Additionally, the inability of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB“) to inspect audit work papers and practices of PCAOB–registered accounting firms in China with respect to their audit work of U.S. reporting companies may impose significant additional risks associated with investments in China.

Certain securities issued by companies located or operating in Greater China, such as China A– shares, are subject to trading restrictions and suspensions, quota limitations and sudden changes in those limitations, and operational, clearing and settlement risks. Additionally, developing countries, such as those in Greater China, may subject the Fund’s investments to a number of tax rules, and the application of many of those rules may be uncertain. Moreover, China has implemented a number of tax reforms in recent years, and may amend or revise its existing tax laws and/or procedures in the future, possibly with retroactive effect. Changes in applicable Chinese tax law could reduce the after– tax profits of the Fund, directly or indirectly, including by reducing the after–tax profits of companies in China in which the Fund invests. Uncertainties in Chinese tax rules could result in unexpected tax liabilities for the Fund.

Risks of Investing through Stock Connect. The Fund may invest directly in the China A Shares through Stock Connect, and will be subject to the following risks: sudden changes in quota limitations, application of trading suspensions, differences in trading days between the PRC and Stock Connect, operational risk, clearing and settlement risk, and regulatory and taxation risk.

Eurozone Investment Risks. Certain of the regions in which the Fund may invest, including the European Union (EU), currently experience significant financial difficulties. Following the global economic crisis that began in 2008, some of these countries have depended on, and may continue to be dependent on, the assistance from others such as the European Central Bank (ECB) or other governments or institutions, and failure to implement reforms as a condition of assistance could have a significant adverse effect on the value of investments in those and other European countries. In addition, countries that have adopted the euro are subject to fiscal and monetary controls that could limit the ability to implement their own economic policies, and could voluntarily abandon, or be forced out of, the euro. Such events could impact the market values of Eurozone and various other securities and currencies, cause redenomination of certain securities into less valuable local currencies, and create more volatile and illiquid markets.

Exit of the United Kingdom from the EU. Additionally, the United Kingdom’s intended departure from the EU, commonly known as “Brexit,“ may have significant political and financial consequences for Euro–zone markets, including greater market volatility and illiquidity, currency fluctuations, deterioration in economic activity, a decrease in business confidence and an increased likelihood of a recession in the United Kingdom.

Risks of Small– and Mid–Cap Companies. Investing in securities of small– and mid–capitalization companies involves greater risk than customarily is associated with investing in larger, more established companies. Stocks of small– and mid–capitalization companies tend to be more vulnerable to changing market conditions, may have little or no operating history or track record of success, and may have more limited product lines and markets, less experienced management and fewer financial resources than larger companies. These companies’ securities may be more volatile and less liquid than those of more established companies. They may be more sensitive to changes in a company’s earnings expectations and may experience more abrupt and erratic price movements. Smaller companies’ securities often trade in lower volumes and in many instances, are traded over–the–counter or on a regional securities exchange, where the frequency and volume of trading is substantially less than is typical for securities of larger companies traded on national securities exchanges. Therefore, the securities of smaller companies may be subject to wider price fluctuations and it might be harder for the Fund to dispose of its holdings at an acceptable price when it wants to sell them. Since small– and mid– cap companies typically reinvest a high proportion of their earnings in their business, they may not pay dividends for some time, particularly if they are newer companies. It may take a substantial period of time to realize a gain on an investment in a small– or mid–cap company, if any gain is realized at all. The Fund measures the market capitalization of an issuer at the time of investment.

Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) Risk. The prices of IPO securities often fluctuate more than prices of securities of companies with longer trading histories and sometimes experience significant price drops shortly after their initial issuance. In addition, companies offering securities in IPOs may have less experienced management or limited operating histories.

Risks of Growth Investing. If a growth company’s earnings or stock price fails to increase as anticipated, or if its business plans do not produce the expected results, the value of its securities may decline sharply. Growth companies may be newer or smaller companies that may experience greater stock price fluctuations and risks of loss than larger, more established companies. Newer growth companies tend to retain a large part of their earnings for research, development or investments in capital assets. Therefore, they may not pay any dividends for some time. Growth investing has gone in and out of favor during past market cycles and is likely to continue to do so. During periods when growth investing is out of favor or when markets are unstable, it may be more difficult to sell growth company securities at an acceptable price. Growth stocks may also be more volatile than other securities because of investor speculation.

Diversification and Concentration. The Fund attempts to reduce its exposure to the risks of individual securities by diversifying its investments across a broad number of different issuers. The Fund will not concentrate its investments in issuers in any one industry. At times, however, the Fund may emphasize investments in some industries or sectors more than others. The prices of securities of issuers in a particular industry or sector may go up and down in response to changes in economic conditions, government regulations, availability of basic resources or supplies, or other events that affect that industry or sector more than others. To the extent that the Fund increases the relative emphasis of its investments in a particular industry or sector, its Unit values may fluctuate in response to events affecting that industry or sector.

Management Risk. The Fund is actively managed and depends heavily on the Adviser’s judgment about markets, interest rates or the attractiveness, relative values, liquidity, or potential appreciation of particular investments made for the Fund’s portfolio. The Fund could experience losses if these judgments prove to be incorrect. Additionally, legislative, regulatory, or tax developments may adversely affect management of the Fund and, therefore, the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective.

Other Equity Securities. In addition to common stocks, the Fund can invest in other equity or “equity equivalents“ securities, such as preferred stocks or convertible securities. Preferred stock has a dividend rate and ranks ahead of common stocks and behind debt securities in claims for dividends and for assets of the issuer in a liquidation or bankruptcy. The dividends on preferred stock may be cumulative (they remain a liability of the issuer until paid) or non–cumulative. The fixed dividend rate of preferred stocks may cause their prices to behave more like those of debt securities. If prevailing interest rates rise, the fixed dividend on preferred stock may be less attractive, which may cause the price of preferred stock to decline. A convertible security can be converted into or exchanged for a set amount of common stock of an issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or according to a price formula. Convertible debt securities pay interest and convertible preferred stocks pay dividends until they mature or are converted, exchanged or redeemed. Some convertible debt securities may be considered “equity equivalents“ because of the feature that makes them convertible into common stock. Convertible securities may offer the Fund the ability to participate in stock market movements while also seeking some current income. Convertible securities may provide more income than common stocks, but they generally provide less income than comparable non–convertible debt securities. Convertible securities are subject to credit and interest rate risk; however, credit ratings of convertible securities generally have less impact on the value of the securities than they do for non– convertible debt securities.

Debt Securities. Debt securities can include debt securities of foreign companies and governments, including those in developing countries. However, the Fund does not invest for income and does not expect to invest significant amounts in debt securities, unless they are convertible securities considered to be “equity equivalents,“ or debt securities purchased for temporary defensive or liquidity purposes. The debt securities market can be susceptible to unusual volatility and illiquidity. In addition, debt securities may be subject to the following risks: interest rate risk; duration risk; credit risk; credit spread risk; extension risk; reinvestment risk; prepayment risk; and event risk.

Private Investment Risk. Investments in private companies involve a high degree of risk and can result in substantial or complete losses. Such investments may be considered to be illiquid and may be difficult to sell at a desirable time or at the prices at which the Fund has valued the investments. Additional risks include that the Fund could be subject to contingent liabilities in the event a private issuer is acquired by another company during the period it is held by the Fund; and that the company may be using excessive leverage.

Investing in Special Situations. At times, the Fund may seek to benefit from what are considers to be “special situations,“ such as mergers, reorganizations, restructurings or other unusual events, that are expected to affect a particular issuer. There is a risk that the anticipated change or event might not occur, which could cause the price of the security to fall, perhaps sharply. In that case, the investment might not produce the expected gains or might cause a loss. This is an aggressive investment technique that may be considered speculative.

Risks of Derivative Investments. Derivatives may be volatile and may involve significant risks. The underlying security, obligor or other instrument on which a derivative is based, or the derivative itself, may not perform as expected. For some derivatives, it is possible to lose more than the amount invested in the derivative investment. In addition, some derivatives have the potential for unlimited loss, regardless of the size of the Fund’s initial investment. Certain derivative investments held by the Fund may be illiquid, making it difficult to close out an unfavorable position. Derivative transactions may require the payment of premiums and may increase portfolio turnover. Derivatives are subject to credit risk, since the Fund may lose money on a derivative investment if the issuer or counterparty fails to pay the amount due. In addition, changes in government regulation of derivative instruments could affect the character, timing and amount of the Fund’s taxable income or gains, and may limit or prevent the Fund from using certain types of derivative instruments as a part of its investment strategy, which could make the investment strategy more costly to implement or require the Fund to change its investment strategy. As a result of these risks, the Fund could realize little or no income or lose money from the investment, or the use of a derivative for hedging might be unsuccessful.

In addition, pursuant to rules implemented under financial reform legislation, certain over–the–counter derivatives, including certain interest rate swaps and certain credit default swaps, are required to be executed on a regulated market and/or cleared through a clearinghouse, which may result in increased margin requirements and costs for the Fund. Entering into a derivative transaction that is cleared may entail further risks and costs, including the counterparty risk of the clearinghouse and the futures commission merchant through which the Fund accesses the clearinghouse.

Hedging. Hedging transactions are intended to reduce the risks of securities in the Fund’s portfolio. At times, however, a hedging instrument’s value might not be correlated with the investment it is intended to hedge, and the hedge might be unsuccessful. If the Fund uses a hedging instrument at the wrong time or judges market conditions incorrectly, the strategy could reduce its return or create a loss.

Illiquid and Restricted Investments. Investments that do not have an active trading market, or that have legal or contractual limitations on their resale, may be considered “illiquid“ investments. Illiquid investments may be difficult to value or to sell promptly at an acceptable price or may require registration under applicable securities laws before they can be sold publicly. Securities that have limitations on their resale are referred to as “restricted investments.“ Certain restricted securities that are eligible for resale to qualified institutional purchasers may not be regarded as illiquid. The Fund will limit its investments in illiquid and restricted securities to fifteen percent (15%) of its net assets. The Fund’s holdings of illiquid and restricted investments are monitored on an ongoing basis to determine whether to sell any of those investments to maintain adequate liquidity.

Investments in Money Market Instruments. The Fund can invest its free cash balances in money market instruments to provide liquidity or for defensive purposes. Money market instruments are short– term, U.S. dollar–denominated debt instruments issued or guaranteed by domestic and non–U.S. corporations and financial institutions, the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities and other entities. Money market instruments include certificates of deposit, commercial paper, repurchase agreements, treasury bills and other short–term debt obligations that have a final maturity, as defined under rules under the Investment Company Act, of 397 days or less. They may have fixed, variable or floating interest rates. Money market instruments are subject to certain risks, including the risk that an issuer of an obligation that the Fund holds might have its credit rating downgraded or might default on its obligations, or that interest rates might rise sharply, causing the value of the Fund’s investments to fall.

The Fund may invest in money market instruments by investing in affiliated or unaffiliated money market funds and short–term investment funds, including collective investment trusts (“underlying funds“). It may also invest in money market instruments directly. The Fund may invest in such underlying funds, rather than purchasing individual short–term investments. At the time of an investment, the Fund cannot always predict what will be the yield of underlying funds it may hold, because of the wide variety of instruments that such funds may hold in their portfolios. The return on those investments may, in some cases, be lower than the return that would have been derived from other types of investments that would provide liquidity. As a shareholder, the Fund will be subject to its proportional share of the expenses of any underlying fund it may hold, including its advisory fee. However, if the Fund invests in an underlying fund that is managed or underwritten by an affiliate of the Sub–Adviser and/or the Trust Company, the Trust Company will waive a portion of the Fund’s investment management fee by an amount that equals the Fund’s share of the advisory fee of such underlying fund that is paid to an affiliate of the Sub–Adviser and/or the Trust Company. If the Fund invests in an unaffiliated underlying fund, the Trust Company will not waive a portion of the Fund’s advisory fee representing the Fund’s share of the advisory fee paid by such unaffiliated underlying fund to any unaffiliated manager.

Temporary Defensive and Interim Investments. For temporary defensive purposes in times of adverse or unstable market, economic or political conditions, the Fund can invest up to 100% of its total assets in investments that may be inconsistent with the Fund's principal investment strategies. Generally, the Fund would invest in money market or other short–term investment funds or vehicles, including collective investment trusts, or in the types of instruments in which money market and short– term investment funds or vehicles invest, or in other short–term U.S. government securities. The Fund might also hold these types of securities as interim investments pending the investment of proceeds from the sale of Fund Units or the sale of Fund portfolio securities or to meet anticipated redemptions of Fund Units. To the extent the Fund invests in these securities, it might not achieve its investment objective.

Portfolio Turnover. A change in the securities held by the Fund is known as “portfolio turnover.“ The Fund may engage in active and frequent trading to try to achieve its investment objective and may have a portfolio turnover rate of over one hundred percent (100%) annually. Increased portfolio turnover may result in higher brokerage fees or other transaction costs, which can reduce performance.

Competition. The securities industry, the various markets in which the Fund participates, and the varied strategies and techniques engaged in by the Sub–Adviser are extremely competitive and each involves a high degree of risk. The Fund, the Trust Company and the Sub–Adviser compete with firms, including, without limitation, many of the larger securities and investment banking firms, which may have substantially greater financial resources, larger research staffs and more traders than the Sub–Adviser has or expects to have in the future, which may place the Fund at a competitive disadvantage.

Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Considerations Risk. The pecuniary ESG considerations assessed as part of the investment process to implement its investment strategy in pursuit of the Fund’s investment objective may vary across types of eligible investments and issuers, and not every ESG factor may be identified or evaluated for every investment. The Fund’s portfolio will not be solely based on ESG considerations, and therefore the issuers in which the Fund invests may not be considered ESG–focused companies. The incorporation of pecuniary ESG factors may affect the Fund’s exposure to certain companies or industries and may not work as intended. The Fund may underperform other funds that do not assess an issuer’s ESG factors or that use a different methodology to identify and/or incorporate ESG factors. Information used by the Fund to evaluate such factors may not be readily available, complete or accurate, and may vary across providers and issuers as ESG is not a uniformly defined characteristic. There is no guarantee that the evaluation of pecuniary ESG considerations will be additive to the Fund’s performance.

Geographic Focus Risk. The Fund may from time to time have a substantial amount of its assets invested in securities of issuers located in a single country or a limited number of countries. Adverse economic, political or social conditions in those countries may therefore have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s investment performance.

Market Risk. The market values of the Fund’s investments, and therefore the value of the Fund’s shares, will go up and down, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably. Market risk may affect a single issuer, industry or section of the economy, or it may affect the market as a whole. The value of the Fund’s investments may go up or down due to general market conditions which are not specifically related to the particular issuer, such as real or perceived adverse economic conditions, changes in the general outlook for revenues or corporate earnings, changes in interest or currency rates, regional or global instability, natural or environmental disasters, widespread disease or other public health issues, war, acts of terrorism or adverse investor sentiment generally. During a general downturn in the financial markets, multiple asset classes may decline in value. When markets perform well, there can be no assurance that specific investments held by the Fund will rise in value.

Business Continuity and Operational Risk. The Trust Company, the Sub–Adviser, the Fund and the Fund’s service providers may experience disruptions or operating errors, such as processing errors or human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, systems or technology failures, or other disruptive events, that could negatively impact and cause disruptions in normal business operations of the Trust Company, the Sub–Adviser, the Fund or the Fund's service providers. The Trust Company has developed a Business Continuity Program (the “Program“) designed to minimize the disruption of normal business operations in the event of an adverse incident affecting the Fund and/or its affiliates. The Program is also designed to enable the Trust Company to reestablish normal business operations in a timely manner during such an adverse incident; however, there are inherent limitations in the Program (including the possibility that contingencies have not been anticipated and procedures do not work as intended) and, under some circumstances (e.g. natural disasters, terrorism, public health crises, power or utility shortages and failures, system failures or malfunctions), the Trust Company, its affiliates and any service providers or vendors used by the Trust Company or such affiliates, could be prevented or hindered from providing services to the Fund for extended periods of time. These circumstances could cause disruptions and negatively impact the Fund's service providers and the Fund's business operations, potentially including an inability to process Fund Unitholder transactions, an inability to calculate the Fund's net asset value and price the Fund's investments, and impediments to trading portfolio securities.

Cybersecurity Risk. The Fund, like all companies, may be susceptible to operational and information security risks. Cybersecurity failures or breaches of the Fund or its service providers or the issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, have the ability to cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, the inability of Fund unitholders to transact business, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance costs. The Fund and its Unitholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

Natural Disaster/Epidemic Risk. Natural or environmental disasters, such as earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, tsunamis and other severe weather–related phenomena generally, and widespread disease, including pandemics and epidemics, have been and can be highly disruptive to economies and markets, adversely impacting individual companies, sectors, industries, markets, currencies, interest and inflation rates, credit ratings, investor sentiment, and other factors affecting the value of the Fund’s investments. Given the increasing interdependence among global economies and markets, conditions in one country, market, or region are increasingly likely to adversely affect markets, issuers, and/or foreign exchange rates in other countries, including the United States. These disruptions could prevent the Fund from executing advantageous investment decisions in a timely manner and negatively impact the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. Any such event(s) could have a significant adverse impact on the value and risk profile of the Fund.