ETF Tax Center
Taxes can erode even the best fund's returns. Generally, when an investment does not require investors to pay taxes during the ownership period, the investment is potentially more tax efficient. Because of their unique structure, ETFs may serve as a tax-efficient investment tool for shareholders who wish to defer capital gains until the point of sale.
Frequently asked questions
Why are ETFs tax efficient?
Unlike traditional mutual funds, the majority of buying and selling by shareholders takes place on an exchange and not directly with the ETF. As a result, the ETF does not need to make purchases or sales in its portfolio in response to these shareholder trades, and with a lower volume of portfolio sales there is a lower likelihood of the ETF realizing gains on its portfolio.
ETFs work directly with authorized participants (APs) which are typically large institutions to create and redeem existing fund shares typically through an "in-kind" process. APs have a legal agreement in place with an ETF trust and their custodial bank allowing them to create or redeem shares of the ETF in large blocks of shares known as creation units. When redemptions are processed "in-kind", the Fund delivers a specific basket of portfolio securities in return for the AP surrendering shares of the ETF.
Due to specific provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, an "in-kind" redemption does not result in a taxable realized gain or loss to the ETF. Thus, this structure may create a meaningfully different after-tax return experience between an ETF and another type of investment vehicle — even if both track the same index.
Please visit our Education Center for more information on tax efficiency and a pictorial representation of creation/redemption process.
What circumstances might make an ETF more likely to have capital gains distributions?
Common events that may cause an ETF to incur capital gains include:
- Corporate Actions: A corporate action is an event that causes material change for a company which could affect its shareholders. With a corporate action, a Fund may be required to surrender a specific portfolio holding to the issuer, or a transaction by the issuer of the holding may result in a realized gain or loss to the Fund, despite the Fund not initiating a transaction.
- Derivative instrument gains: Realizing gains on derivative instruments or collateral such as options or futures that settle or expire with a net gain to the fund.
- Non-in-kind Portfolio Transactions: There may be situations where an in-kind transaction is not available or appropriate and therefore the Fund may sell securities for cash as opposed to delivering them "in-kind". These types of sales will give rise to a taxable realized gain or loss to the Fund.
Click here to view our press release on capital gains.
Why do some of your ETFs issue K-1s? Which ones? Where can I get more info on that?
ETFs that are structured as a partnership will issue K-1s.
Invesco ETFs that issue K-1s include:
- Invesco DB Agriculture Fund (DBA)
- Invesco DB Base Metals Fund (DBB)
- Invesco DB Commodity Index Tracking Fund (DBC)
- Invesco DB Energy Fund (DBE)
- Invesco DB G10 Currency Harvest Fund (DBV)
- Invesco DB Gold Fund (DGL)
- Invesco DB Oil Fund (DBO)
- Invesco DB Precious Metal Fund (DBP)
- Invesco DB Silver Fund (DBS)
- Invesco DB US Dollar Bearish Fund (UDN)
- Invesco DB US Dollar Bullish Fund (UUP)
You can get more information on K-1s and view our step-by-step K-1 Flyer by visiting our K-1 Tax Center.
K-1 tax center
Tools, resources and answers to frequently asked questions for products that
K-1 Tax Center
IVZ ETF Monthly QII Percentages
1099 data for ETF products
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